The Fallacies of Calvinist Apologetics – Fallacy #10: Wait, Now Faith is a “Work?”

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“[Arminianism] denies sola fide (faith alone) by changing the character of faith so that it is basically a work.” (Rev. Richard Phillips [Alliance of Confessing Evangelicals], Is Arminianism a Biblical View or Is it Heresy?)

“Nay, the doctrine of justification itself, as preached by an Arminian, is nothing but the doctrine of salvation by works, lifted up; for he always thinks faith is a work of the creature and a condition of his acceptance. It is as false to say that man is saved by faith as a work, as that he is saved by the deeds of the law” (Spurgeon, C.H., “Effects of Sound Doctrine”)

Continuing on the theme of faith, another odd assertion often made by Calvinists is that non-Calvinists somehow make faith into a “work” (as in “salvation by works”). If true, this would of course spell disaster for any competing belief system, since the scriptures clearly deny that a man can be justified by works. The simplistic logic behind the argument is rashly demonstrated by Fred Butler of Grace to You Ministries in my exchange with him:

“If God requires that we cooperate with His plan of salvation … then how is this NOT works?”

Their reasoning is straightforward enough: all human acts are “works” of some kind, therefore to believe that faith is something people do makes faith into a work. While seemingly sound, this decontextualized logic begins to fall apart quickly when the scriptures are examined. To dismantle this fallacy, let’s examine a few incontrovertible facts from scripture:

1. Salvation and righteousness are by faith

This should go without saying. To be thorough:

“Therefore, having been justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ….” (Romans 5:1)

“So the law was put in charge to lead us to Christ that we might be justified by faith.” (Galatians 3:24)

“And he received the sign of circumcision, a seal of the righteousness that he had by faith while he was still uncircumcised. So then, he is the father of all who believe but have not been circumcised, in order that righteousness might be credited to them.” (Romans 4:11)

2. Faith is believing

Some may try to draw some artificial distinction between faith and believing; no such differentiation exists in the Bible, the two are synonymous. It’s accepted by all sides that righteousness is by faith (see Romans 4:11 above), and it’s stated directly in scripture that it is believing that is accounted as righteousness:

“For what does the Scripture say? “Abraham believed God, and it was accounted to him for righteousness.”” (Romans 4:3) [see also Genesis 15:6, Galatians 3:6, James 2:23]

So faith is synonymous with belief in Christ.

3. Believing is a human action

To put it simply, God doesn’t believe for us, it is we who believe in our hearts, to which the scriptures plainly attest:

“For if you confess with your mouth that Jesus is Lord and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved. For it is with your heart that you believe and are justified, and it is with your mouth that you confess and are saved.” (Romans 10:9-10)

As I commented on the last post:

“…it’s vital to differentiate between the condition to salvation and the actual saving work. Coming to faith in Christ freely isn’t 99.99% God saving me and 0.01% me saving me. I do exactly 100% of my own believing in Christ, to which God has graciously responded with doing exactly 100% of the saving work.”

So putting the facts we’ve learned together syllogistically:

(P1) Salvation and righteousness are by faith
(P2) Faith is believing
(P3) Believing is a human action
(C1) Therefore, salvation and righteousness come about through a human action – believing

The conclusion here correlates perfectly with the preceding thought in Romans 10:10a, “For it is with your heart that you believe and are justified….”

The Calvinist may object at this point that he believes that faith is irresistibly conferred by God through regeneration or some such, but that’s quite beside the point when addressing their ‘salvation by works / works-righteousness’ charges. Regardless of whether people believe in a truly free sense, or are irresistibly changed so that they have no other choice, believing something with one’s heart is still a human action, which brings us to our next point.

4. Scripture teaches that salvation is by faith, not works; and that no one can be justified by works

“David says the same thing when he speaks of the blessedness of the man to whom God credits righteousness apart from works….” (Romans 4:6)

So given these facts,

(P1a) Salvation and righteousness come about through a human action – believing (C1 above)
(P2a) Scripture teaches that salvation is by faith, not works; and that no one can be justified by works
(C2) Therefore the action of believing isn’t comparable to the “works” scripture says no one can be justified by

Obviously, when the scriptures refer to our righteousness not being by works, the action of believing logically can’t be included in such a set if one reads the scriptures with any consistency. The unscriptural charges of the Reformed apologists begins to further unravel when the obvious resolution is shown….

The simple solution from the context

There really isn’t any deep mystery or paradox here. the “works” which men cannot be justified by are the works of the law as the contexts in Paul’s teachings on faith and justification easily bear out.

“Therefore by the deeds of the law no flesh will be justified in His sight, for by the law is the knowledge of sin.” (Romans 3:20)

“Why not? Because they pursued it not by faith but as if it were by works. They stumbled over the “stumbling stone.”” (Romans 9:32)

“…knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law but by faith in Jesus Christ, even we have believed in Christ Jesus, that we might be justified by faith in Christ and not by the works of the law; for by the works of the law no flesh shall be justified.” (Galatians 2:16)

“Clearly no one is justified before God by the law, because, “The righteous will live by faith.”” (Galatians 3:11)

Nowhere does the Bible equate believing in Christ with keeping some work of the law, and hence salvation by faith can never be “salvation by works” in the sense Paul condemns. Some Calvinists may insist that it being a human action still makes it into some sort of work, but this really isn’t an objection, since even though anything one does can be classified as a ‘work’ in some sense, such actions wouldn’t necessarily have relevance to the topic of the law. When Christ spoke of laboring for the food which doesn’t perish, the crowd asked how they could do so.

“Do not work for food that spoils, but for food that endures to eternal life, which the Son of Man will give you. On him God the Father has placed his seal of approval.” Then they asked him, “What must we do to do the works God requires?” Jesus answered, “The work of God is this: to believe in the one he has sent.” (John 6:27-29, emphasis added)

So believing can in fact be considered a work (in a very loose sense) by virtue of it being a human action. This fact comes into no conflict whatsoever with Paul’s teaching against salvation by works, since Paul isn’t condemning salvation through the action of belief, he’s decrying attempts to merit salvation by the keeping of the Mosaic law. This fact is further driven home by the fact that Paul draws a direct contrast between the two practices:

If, in fact, Abraham was justified by works, he had something to boast about–but not before God. What does the Scripture say? “Abraham believed God, and it was credited to him as righteousness.”” (Romans 4:2-3 [emphasis added])

Notice that the action of Abraham’s believing itself is spoken of in direct contraposition to “works.” Clearly, since believing is an action men perform in their hearts (cf Romans 10:9-10 above), his dismissal of justification by works doesn’t imply exclusion of all human actions in obedience to the gospel such as hearing (Romans 10:17), receiving (John 1:12, James 1:21) or believing, but simply that the works of the law cannot justify.

“Salvation unto faith?”

To save the ill-founded case that they and their forebears have pushed for centuries, some Calvinists will actually go as far as to deny redemption through faith! Incredibly, Hendryx takes this stance:

“Again, it is true that the Bible contrasts faith and works, but biblical faith is never seen as something we, in our unregenerate condition, had to autonomously (apart form[sic] the invincible power of the Holy Spirit) contribute. … But the work of Christ redeems us unto faith, not on the condition of faith.” (Hendryx, J., ‘Can Faith Ever Be Considered a Work?1)

Myron Berg (a monergist Lutheran) apparently agrees:

Proponents of prevenient grace also make faith into a work. God’s purpose of declaring faith as essential to salvation was not to reduce God’s requirement of keeping the ten commandments down to just having faith, (which is a part of the first commandment) but to use faith as an indicator that the person had come to the realization that his condition is so repugnant to God that his only hope is that Christ can stand in his place before God. (Berg, M., ‘Prevenient Grace’)

To Hendryx’s assertion, the word for ‘redemption’ (apolytrosis) is used synonymously with forgiveness of sins.

“In him we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of sins, in accordance with the riches of God’s grace….” (Ephesians 1:7, see also Colossians 1:13-14)

Now it’s apparent that one cannot have such redemption/forgiveness from sins if he’s not justified in Christ (the terms ‘justification,’ ‘forgiveness’ are both used synonymously with being made righteous throughout Paul’s exposition on righteousness through faith in Romans 4). To assert we’re “[redeemed] unto faith” as Hendryx does is then tantamount to saying that redemption and justification precede (and therefore don’t come by) faith, contrary to scripture’s plain teaching on justification by faith (e.g. Romans 5:1, Galatians 3:24 cited above). The same problem permeates Berg’s commentary, since if believing is merely the indicator or symptom and not the condition to justification in Christ, then it can’t correctly be stated that we’re justified by faith. Such attempts to frame salvation conditioned upon faith as being “salvation by works” collapse under their own weight, since the one doing so must implicitly deny justification by faith.

Faith is a work of the law?

Berg raises an interesting objection that I’ve seen before. Some monergists retort that faith was a matter of the law, therefore if it’s a condition of salvation, one is still preaching “works righteousness.” For instance, Jesus states,

“Woe to you, teachers of the law and Pharisees, you hypocrites! You give a tenth of your spices–mint, dill and cummin. But you have neglected the more important matters of the law–justice, mercy and faithfulness. You should have practiced the latter, without neglecting the former.” (Matthew 23:23)

So is faith in the general context of Paul’s epistles a matter of the Mosaic law then? Consider, a man who seeks to establish his own righteousness by the deeds of the law may hold to some form of faithfulness or faith in God and His wondrous works as a point of duty to the law for his justification (as Paul doubtless did before his conversion). Yet despite this, such a one would be denying the work of Christ through attempting to establish his own righteousness. Just as those Jews who rejected their Messiah, one can be “zealous for God, but not according to knowledge” (Romans 10:2). So to show that faith in God is a matter of the Mosaic law hardly equates to faith in Christ being a work thereof. This abject ignorance of said accusation is also directly refuted by Paul’s clear distinction the law and faith that has come in Galatians chapter 3:

“For as many as are of the works of the law are under the curse; for it is written, “Cursed is everyone who does not continue in all things which are written in the book of the law, to do them.” But that no one is justified by the law in the sight of God is evident, for “the just shall live by faith.” Yet the law is not of faith, but “the man who does them shall live by them.”

Christ has redeemed us from the curse of the law, having become a curse for us (for it is written, “Cursed is everyone who hangs on a tree” ), that the blessing of Abraham might come upon the Gentiles in Christ Jesus, that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith. Brethren, I speak in the manner of men: Though it is only a man’s covenant, yet if it is confirmed, no one annuls or adds to it. Now to Abraham and his Seed were the promises made. He does not say, “And to seeds,” as of many, but as of one, “And to your Seed,” who is Christ. And this I say, that the law, which was four hundred and thirty years later, cannot annul the covenant that was confirmed before by God in Christ, that it should make the promise of no effect. For if the inheritance is of the law, it is no longer of promise; but God gave it to Abraham by promise. What purpose then does the law serve? It was added because of transgressions, till the Seed should come to whom the promise was made; and it was appointed through angels by the hand of a mediator. Now a mediator does not mediate for one only, but God is one.

Is the law then against the promises of God? Certainly not! For if there had been a law given which could have given life, truly righteousness would have been by the law. But the Scripture has confined all under sin, that the promise by faith in Jesus Christ might be given to those who believe. But before faith came, we were kept under guard by the law, kept for the faith which would afterward be revealed. Therefore the law was our tutor to bring us to Christ, that we might be justified by faith. But after faith has come, we are no longer under a tutor. For you are all sons of God through faith in Christ Jesus.” (Galatians 3:10-26 NKJV, emphasis added)

As it’s writen, the law isn’t against the promises of God through faith, but neither is it the substance thereof, for the law isn’t of faith, but was added centuries later because of transgressions. The law and prophets rightly do command belief in God (2 Chronicles 20:20). This does not encompass, but as a good schoolmaster, rather points to the superior faith in Christ (Luke 24:44, Galatians 3:24 quoted above).

One under the law can believe in God and that He does miraculous things as a point of the law’s righteous requirements, this is not the same as one who trusts Christ for his salvation. The former shows faithfulness as a matter of duty in attempt to justify himself, the later acknowledges his inability to be justified by the law and his need for the righteousness of Christ. As opposed to attempts to keep the law, faith itself is not what actually justifies, but He in whom the faith is placed graciously accounts it as righteousness. As opposed to one who believes in God as a matter of keeping the law unto self-righteousness, one who believes in Christ’s atoning work, in acknowledging his need for Him as Savior, has already admitted that he has fallen short (Romans 3:23) and that his own works are inadequate to justify him. That is why such a distinction is drawn in Paul’s epistles between the law and faith, and that it would be a critical error to equate saving faith in Christ with the works of the law.


The accusations of works righteousness that Calvinists are so well-known for flinging really don’t hold any water when the scriptures are examined. The very suggestion that Arminians/Synergists believe in such betrays a fundamental ignorance of what faith and works really are within their scriptural contexts on the part of the accusers.

The assertion that faith is a “work” because it’s something people do is incoherent in light of the Bible equating faith with believing (an action); the plain resolution being that the “works” in the context of scripture’s teaching of “faith, not works” are the works of the law. Failure to recognize this has led to even mainstream Calvinists such as Hendryx into advocating “redemption unto faith” in opposition to the “justification by faith” taught in the New Testament. Their counter that faith is commanded in the law is hopelessly erroneous in that it, a.) ignores the strong distinction drawn by Paul between faith in Christ and the works of the law in Galatians, and b.) winds up effectively making the self-contradictory claim that it’s a matter of keeping the law to trust Christ to do for me what my keeping of the law cannot.

The charge that Arminians “turn faith into a work” being shown to be simple equivocation of terms (conflating works of the law with faith), the associated charges they level against those who believe that free will plays some role in whether we believe collapse as well.

“And a point I have yet to see explained as well is how making a decision qualifies as a “work.” The Jews were forbidden to work on the Sabbath; did this prohibit them from thinking or making a decision? Is there any evidence that the Greek word behind “works” (ergon) ever refers to a thought or a decision? It is my earnest wish that an enterprising Calvinist will step to the plate and answer this question, for it seems to me that this is a flawed premise upon which the Calvinistic case rests.” (Holding, J.P. [], Un Conditioning)

It’s apparent then that the charges of “salvation by works” that Calvinists typically employ are based upon their elementary misunderstanding of the nature of saving faith and works of the law. Such charges then constitute mere pointless quibbling founded in decontextualization of terms, and the error of equating the works of the Old Covenant unto our own righteousness with obedience to the New Covenant for the righteousness of Christ.


1. Hendryx’s further objection, “The question we need to be asking ourselves is, “what makes us to differ from other men who do not believe?” … the grace of God in Christ or the will of man? If we say “the will of man” it is a boast and therefore not the kind of faith that is contrasted with works in the Bible.” was answered in our previous post.

17 thoughts on “The Fallacies of Calvinist Apologetics – Fallacy #10: Wait, Now Faith is a “Work?”

  1. JC, good post!

    One thing that I would like to add to this is to take this accusation (faith being considered a work) to its logical conclusion. If those that teach that man must repent and believe (even with prevenient grace) are teaching a salvation that is based on works (with equating faith with works), then would that not mean that those who teach and believe this are not saved? The Scripture clearly states that “no flesh will be justified by the works of the law” so if this accustaion by Calvinists were to be true then that means that the only people that are saved and Elect are Calvinists! However, I have asked Calvinists this bluntly (whether one has to be a Calvinist in order to be saved) and almost universally they hesitantly say “no” even if that means being “barely a Christian” according to RC Sproul. Now that is a flat out contradiction! You cant say on one hand that those who are Non-Calvinists are teaching a works based salvation (faith being considered a work because it is something that we do) and on the other hand saying that they are your brothers in Christ who have been saved by works! This is similiar to the equating Calvinism with the Gospel (like Spurgeon did). If Calvinism is the Gospel, then they only ones that are saved are the Calvinists as they are the only ones with the Gospel. Those who would hold to these false beliefs should defintely be labeled hyper-Calvinists or is that just Consistent Calvinism?

  2. JPC, can’t agree more. I think when confronted with that logical ramification, most Calvinists either backpedal into antinomy, or realize that their polemics are so wildly bogus even they don’t really believe them, since they’d wind up saying that anyone who’s not effectively a Calvinist is lost. Thus such a charge strikes me as more of a huff-and-puff scare tactic in many cases.

    Even worse, their own theology can’t easily escape the charge if believing is something man does. They’d have to effectively change the definition of ‘faith’ so that it doesn’t include any element of human action, making it merely some sort of tacked-on quality that merely causes belief as a byproduct. Strange as that sounds, I actually knew one Calvinist who insisted that Christ as a Person literally is saving faith!

    Hyper Calvinists? Probably, but labels like that make little difference to me. It’s enough to say the charge is fallacious, scripturally inaccurate, needlessly divisive, false and sinful.

  3. I think that faith is a gift, but the thing which is eisegetically being inferred by Calvinism is that this gift is irresistable, but where do they get that idea? theological inference.

    Arminius agreed that faith is a gift. In regards to that, Arminius wrote in “Disputation XLI: On the Predestination Of the Means to the End”:

    “I. After we have finished our discussion on which the predestination by which God has determined the necessity of faith in Himself and in Christ, for the obatining of salvation, according to which faith is prescribed to be performed as the bounden duty of man to God and Christ; it follows, that we treat on the predestination by which God determines to administer the means of faith.
    II. For, as that act of faith is not in the power of a natural, carnal, sensual and sinful man, and as no one can perform this act except through the grace of God, but as all the grace of God is administered according to the will of God–that will which He had within Himself from all eternity–for it is an internal act, therefore, some ertan predestination must be preonceived in the mind and will of God, ascording to which He dispenses that grace, or the means to it.”

    (Arminius’ Works, vol II, Lamp Post Edition, pg 73).

    Essentially what he is saying here is this:

    1) God has determined that faith in Christ is necessary for salvation.
    2) Faith in Christ is therefore the duty of man to God.
    3) But faith cannot be produced in the natural power of sinful man.
    4) Question: ‘How, then, does God administer faith?’
    5) Answer: ‘The dispensation of God grace.’
    6) Question: ‘How, then, does God dispense His grace, and what is the nature of it?’

    So we must find an answer to #6. For me though;

    1) Is faith a gift? I think so.
    2) Is this gift irresistable? Not necessarily.
    3) How does God dispense this gift? To be answered. Perhpas the Romans 10:17 idea.

  4. Having said that above, I suspect that God gives us that most necessary faith but we need to decide what to do with it.

    PS: Sorry for the typos in Arminius’ disputation. I’m the bad speller not him 😛

  5. “Having said that above, I suspect that God gives us that most necessary faith but we need to decide what to do with it.”

    It seems that if we decide to believe, that gives us something to boast about. Will you please clarify what you mean by this?

  6. J.C.,

    You wrote in your post: “(P1) Salvation and righteousness are by faith.”

    My understanding of Ephesians 2:8 is that when Paul writes “it is by grace you have been saved through faith and that not of yourselves it is the gift of God” refers to God’s Grace being the agent of salvation and faith being the vehicle that brings the grace. The way you have written it here suggests otherwise. Will you please clarify for me what you mean when you wrote “salvation and righteousness are by faith?”

    Thanks for clarifying!

  7. B.P, et al,
    Is there even one case in the entire scripture where faith is not attributed to the one expressing it? I cannot think of any. Faith clearly is something that finds expression in the will of the individual. Calvinism posits regeneration as the cause of such an ability, Arminianism, prevenient grace. I think faith is an innate ability in mankind that requires the conviction of the Holy Spirit (the reality of God, present) to awaken. Abraham’s faith awakened when God showed up, his experience is the paradigm for ours. Abraham (as did Adam) could have chosen to not express faith in response to the conviction (reality) of God’s presence, but he went with it instead.

  8. Curtis,

    @The way you have written it here suggests otherwise.

    How so?

    @Will you please clarify for me what you mean when you wrote “salvation and righteousness are by faith?”

    Salvation is by faith (which the verse you quoted from Epesians makes clear), and righteousness is by faith (Romans 3:22, Galatians 5:5, Hebrews 11:7….).

    Also, faith cannot be a viable reason to boast.

  9. J.C.,

    As I am reading Ephesians 2:8, faith is not what saves you. Grace is what saves you. That is what is clear from Ephesians 2, hence “by grace you have been saved through faith…” I don’t understand what you are seeing differently from me. As I understand it, Faith (faith in Christ, of course) is the necessary conduit that gets the grace to the person (just like the pipe that gets the water to the person). The grace of God then is what actually saves. Is this what you mean? Or are you saying Faith is the agent that actually saves?

    I saw on another post you wrote something to the effect that the Greek in Ephesians 2:8-9 “forbids” (that is the word that struck me) the pronoun “that” from referring to “faith”. Do you have more on this? I searched for Ephesians 2:8-9 on the blog but didn’t see an explanation of how you came to that conclusion.

    Thanks for taking the time to answer!

  10. Curtis,

    I don’t recall writing anything on the use of “that” in Eph 2:8-9.

    @Is this what you mean? Or are you saying Faith is the agent that actually saves?

    I believe I’ve already been abundantly clear on this in my post:

    “As opposed to attempts to keep the law, faith itself is not what actually justifies, but He in whom the faith is placed graciously accounts it as righteousness.”

  11. JC,

    Please forgive my poor reading skills! Thanks for clarifying from your post.

    Also, you did not write about the use of “that” in Ephesians 2. It was Kangaroodort. Please forgive me for that. I’ve had a lot of late nights and early mornings lately!

  12. Though faith is required, it’s not what saves us, but the object of our faith is what that saves us… that’s what it actually means to be “saved through faith”. Faith is the substance of things hoped for. Our sure hope is Christ. Since faith is exercised everyday by every person who believes in something, whether they realize it or not, from the mundane to the lofty. But in the case of receiving Christ as Savior, one must exercise faith, which is enabled by the Spirit and Word, which is Life. “Faith (in Christ) comes by hearing, and hearing by the Word of God. “My Words, they are Spirit and Life”

  13. Pingback: Is the Human Decision to Accept God’s Grace a Meritorious Work? « Countering the Rise of Calvinism

  14. “”I do exactly 100% of my own believing in Christ, to which God has graciously responded with doing exactly 100% of the saving work.”””

    Hey, I think Calvinists have just about the worst comprehension skills known to man but this 100% of the believing comes from you is not correct.

    There are plenty of scriptures that clearly show God increases our faith. It was the Father who put the full belief in Peters mind that Jesus was Messiah. It was not 100% Peter

    So you’re not understanding the progression here. Just think of your own experience. When we turn to God–whether with an actual question–“Is Christ who he said he is and if so I will follow him” or we simply think about it—We dont know for sure, at that moment that Christ is God. No one can come to that conclusion. Doubt exists in our world for a reason. if God wanted no doubt he would build a castle in your town so you could see for a *Fact or write Jesus’ name in the sky. This makes it possible to turn to God without Knowing(Faith)

    So we turn to God in faith–we dont know..we dont see..and God confirms that faith(when we ask and profess to follow) by giving us the Holy Spirit. At that point we KNOW. Now, I know some Christians who say they still dont know for sure but I dont feel that–I know as certain as my name. But not all do. God must increase their faith.
    That faith–the knowing– is given by God supernaturally. God also increases our faith when under persecution, temptation etc.

    So this 100% Us– is not correct. It ammunition for Calvinists. Personally, I think Calvin may have been nutts. He was smart but had completely horrible comprehension of the totality of the NT. He set up what amounts to Islamic law in his city–punishing individual sins. he was constantly saying his opponents were following satan, condemning people to hell–the guys fruit is suspect to say the least. He was very cult like—expounding secret knowledge lost. But we should clearly espouse the truth even if it gives ground to his band of followers.
    God does harden. God did not give the opportunity of faith in Christ to gentiles till 30AD. Most of Israel is hardened until the number of the gentiles comes in. Then a mass jewish salvation will occur. Whether we want to consider Middle Knowledge or other solutions to this fine–but those are the facts and I find arminians water them down–fashioning God to their own liking. The Devil has no chance at redemption as well–so in the end we are left with –God doesnt make mistakes but has the right to fashion the world however he sees fit.

    It seems some need their faith increased–not about believing in the resurrection but trusting God knows what he’s doing–even if you dont understand it.

  15. Thank you JC Thibodaux
    The Calvinist need to make up their mind on whether faith is a work in their theology and elsewhere. If it is a work, their salvation is by works as well.

    Arguing that faith is a gift does not help. This simply ascribes men’s work in obtaining salvation to God.

    The fact that faith is contrasted with works is the clearest proof that faith is not work

  16. All saving merit is in the person of the Lord Jesus Christ. Faith is merely the “instrumental cause” of our justification and never the “meritorious cause”. In other words, there is no merit in faith, but rather all righteousness and merit are in the “object” of our faith, the sinless Lamb of God, the one Mediator between God and Man, Jesus Christ.
    Bill Diehl Jr, editor

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